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Introduction to MySQL

This course is valuable for anyone who needs to learn SQL programming. An understanding of relational database and basic programming concepts is helpful.


Learning Objectives

  • Write SQL code based on ANSI/ISO standards to build and maintain database structures
  • Update database content with SQL and transaction handling
  • Retrieve data from single or multiple tables
  • Process data with row and aggregate functions
  • Manipulate data with correlated and noncorrelated subqueries
  • Apply views to break down problems and enhance security


An understanding of relational database and basic programming concepts is helpful.

Course Content

SQL Overview

  • Outlining the importance of SQL as the cornerstone of all database activity
  • Applying the ANSI/ISO standards
  • Describing the fundamental building blocks: tables, columns, primary keys and foreign keys
  • Defining terminology

Building the Database Schema

Creating tables and columns

  • Comparing data types across platforms
  • Building tables with CREATE TABLE
  • Modifying table structure with ALTER TABLE
  • Adding columns to an existing table
  • Increasing column size
  • Removing tables with DROP TABLE

Protecting data integrity with constraints

  • Defining constraint types
  • Guaranteeing uniqueness with primary key constraints
  • Enforcing referential integrity with foreign key constraints
  • Imposing business rules with check constraints
  • Enabling and disabling constraints
  • Removing constraints with ALTER TABLE

Improving performance with indexes

  • Expediting data retrieval with indexes
  • Recommending guidelines for index creation

Manipulating Data

Modifying table contents

  • Adding table rows with INSERT
  • Changing row content with UPDATE
  • Removing rows with DELETE

Applying transactions

  • Atomic Consistent Isolated Durable (ACID) rules
  • Controlling transactions with COMMIT and ROLLBACK

Writing Single Table Queries

  • Retrieving data with SELECT
  • Including columns and expressions in query results
  • Restricting rows with the WHERE filter
  • Sorting the result with ORDER BY
  • Handling NULL values in expressions
  • Avoiding NULL value pitfalls in filter conditions

Querying Multiple Tables

Applying the ANSI/ISO standard join syntax

  • Matching related rows with INNER JOIN
  • Including nonmatched rows with OUTER JOIN
  • Creating a Cartesian product with CROSS JOIN
  • Joining a table to itself

Combining results with set operators

  • Stacking results with UNION
  • Identifying matching rows with INTERSECT
  • Utilising EXCEPT to find nonmatching rows

Employing Functions in Data Retrieval

Processing data with row functions

  • Solving mathematical problems with functions
  • Manipulating text strings
  • Converting date/time presentation
  • Conditional formatting with the CASE expression
  • Utilising the CASE expression to simulate IF tests
  • Dealing with NULL values

Performing analysis with aggregate functions

  • Summarising data using SUM, AVG and COUNT
  • Finding the highest and lowest values with MAX and MIN
  • Defining the summary level with GROUP BY
  • Applying filter conditions with HAVING

Constructing Nested Queries

Applying subqueries in filter conditions

  • Correlated vs. noncorrelated subqueries
  • Embedding subqueries in several levels
  • Testing the existence of rows
  • Single row vs. multirow subqueries

Including subqueries in expressions

  • Placing subqueries in the column list
  • Creating complex expressions containing subqueries
  • Handling subqueries that return no rows

Developing In-Line and Stored Views

Breaking down complex problems

  • Selecting data from a query result set
  • Subqueries in the FROM clause

Creating views in a database

  • Building reusable code
  • Refining user access privileges

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