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Unix/Linux Fundamentals

The objective of this course is to provide a comprehensive introduction to the UNIX operating system.


Learning Objectives

At the end of the course delegates will have the fundamental skills required to login to a Unix system, manage files and directories, use Unix commands and manage processes, use an editor, access the electronic mail facility and create simple shell scripts.


Delegates should be computer literate and familiar with the basic usage of an operating system, although no prior knowledge of UNIX is required.

Course Content

Introduction to UNIX

  • History of Unix
  • Unix Features
  • Unix System V
  • Standards

Executing UNIX Commands

  • Logging in
  • The shell prompts
  • Unix Commands syntax
  • Arguments and options
  • Basic Unix commands
  • Terminal characteristics

Using Electronic Mail

  • Reading your mail
  • Sending mail
  • Saving mail
  • Replying and forwarding
  • Deleting mail messages

The UNIX Filesystem

  • File system structure
  • Directories and files
  • Important Unix directories
  • The Kernel
  • User's home directory
  • Naming convention

Accessing Files

  • Wildcards
  • Pathnames (Absolute & Relative)
  • Changing Directories
  • Listing files
  • File details
  • Sub-directories (making & removing)


  • Standard input & output devices
  • redirecting output and appending output
  • Displaying contents of files

File Management

  • Copying files
  • Removing files
  • (interactively & recursively)
  • Moving files
  • Managing Multiple files
  • Removing directories


  • Finding User
  • Group and other permissions
  • Read, Write and Execute permissions
  • Effect of permissions on files and directories
  • The unmask
  • Changing permissions on files and directories
  • Changing file ownership and group

Linking files

  • I-nodes
  • Hard links
  • Symbolic links


  • Formatting for printing
  • Sending files to the printer

Sorting the Contents of Files

  • Normal Sort
  • Numeric Sort
  • Merging Sorted Files
  • Saving the Sorted Output
  • Sort Keys
  • Multiple Keys
  • Field Separators
  • Duplicated Records
  • Case Sensitivity

Other Unix File Utilities

  • Counting words
  • lines and characters
  • Looking at the start and end of files
  • File comparisons Creating ed scripts with diff
  • Suppressing duplicated output

Combining Unix Commands and Utilities

  • Piping standard output to new commands
  • Filtering standard output in a pipeline

Finding Files

  • The find command syntax
  • Defining search
  • Find actions
  • Executing commands on matched files

Finding patterns in files

  • Grep regular expressions
  • Special characters

The Unix editors

  • Invoking vi
  • Command and edit mode
  • Moving around
  • Undo
  • Deleting
  • Saving
  • Named buffers
  • The ed editor
  • Substitution
  • Global substitution.
  • Pattern searches
  • Changing text
  • Replacing text
  • Moving text
  • Copying and Pasting
  • Joining lines

Introduction to Bourne & Korn Shells

  • Different shells and features
  • Invoking a shell
  • The PATH
  • Quotation marks
  • Variables
  • Shell variables
  • Exporting variables
  • Environment variables
  • Process variables
  • User profiles.


  • Foreground processes
  • Background processes
  • Command priority
  • Process status
  • Killing processes

Shell Script Basics

  • Creating and executing a script
  • Script parameters

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