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# Introduction to Statistics

This hands-on introduction to statistics for data science gives you the tools required to make sense of data and draw *valid* conclusions. The focus of this course is on statistical thinking. Concepts will be introduced intuitively before being expanded formally. You will learn how to think in terms of distributions---not single point estimates. Statistical tools will be introduced in the context of how to use them to gain insight and solve problems. You will also learn how to use the powerful, industry-standard R environment to do the number-crunching in this statistics for data science course.

## Key Features of Introduction to Statistics:

• End-of-course exam included
• After-course computing sandbox included
• After-course instructor coaching included

### Who Should Attend This Course

Anyone who is required to draw conclusions from numbers.

No prior knowledge of statistics or software packages is required. An inquisitive nature and an interest in using numbers to solve problems are essential.

Select specific date to see price, venue and full details.

## You Will Learn How To:

• Visualise data
• Draw conclusions about the features and quality of data sets
• Determine correlation
• Think of numbers as distributions
• Understand sampling and it's importance in statistic inference
• Use the power of computers to generate distributions for any problem
• Calculate confidence intervals and p-values
• Make valid statistic inferences using a range of hypothesis tests
• Critique statistical analyses
• Design and execute your own statistical projects

#### Pre-Requisites

There are no formal prerequisites for attending this course.

### Introduction and Overview

• Course philosophy
• Software
• Contents

### What is Statistics?

• Definition
• Types of statistician
• Variability
• Probability
• Let the die roll!
• Die roll outcomes
• Why is knowledge of statistics important?
• Descriptive vs inferential statistics
• Inferring population parameters
• Quantitative data
• Qualitative data
• R statistical software
• RStudio
• Interactive exercise manual demo

### Exploratory Data Analysis

• What is exploratory data analysis (EDA)
• Histograms and bar charts
• Bar chart vs histogram
• Bin width is crucial
• Right-skewed data
• Outliers
• Left-skewed data
• Bimodal data
• Separate subpopulations for analysis
• Individual value plot
• Subpopulation individual value plots
• Benefits of boxplots
• Boxplot
• Boxplot vs histogram
• Left-skewed boxplot
• Compare subpopulations using boxplots
• Swedish salaries by level of education
• Measures of central tendency
• Mean vs median
• Mean vs median for skewed data
• Mode
• Range and IQR
• Standard deviation
• Six figure summary
• Central tendency and spread equations
• Quantiles
• Benefits of scatterplots
• Scatterplot
• Highlighting subgroups on scatterplot
• What is correlation?
• Correlation examples
• Random data correlation
• Literacy rate correlation
• # children per woman correlation
• Interpreting correlation coefficients
• Correlation doesn’t imply causation
• Causation doesn’t imply (linear) correlation

### Probability Distributions

• Numbers are mostly reckless estimates
• Random variables
• Male life expectancy in UK distribution
• What’s the probability that a US man is 6’ or more?
• What is a probability distribution?
• Populations vs samples
• Sampling the heights of 10 random American men
• Sampling the heights of 100,000 random American men
• Discrete probability distributions
• Roll two dice and histogram the results
• Poisson distribution
• Binary probability distributions
• Probability distribution for cars/household in the UK
• Binomial distribution
• Geometric distribution
• Negative Binomial distribution
• Continuous probability distributions
• Uniform distribution
• Triangular distribution
• Normal distribution
• Properties of the normal distribution
• Distribution of IQ scores
• Different means (same standard deviation)
• Different standard deviations (same mean)
• z-distribution
• 68–95–99.7 (empirical) rule
• Quantile-Quantile (Q-Q) plot
• Q-Q plot of non-normal data
• Common probability distributions “family tree”

### Sampling

• Samples are proxies for the population of interest
• Unfortunately, samples vary
• Larger samples exhibition less variation
• Statistics vs parameters
• Distributions involved in statistical inference
• Sampling distribution of mean IQ
• Collecting more IQ samples
• Sampling distribution of mean die roll
• Sampling distribution of mean project duration
• Create a sampling distribution
• Central limit theorem
• Implications of the central limit theorem
• Standard error of the mean (SEM)
• Impact of sample size on SEM
• What is a confidence interval?
• 95% confidence interval
• Bigger samples give greater precision
• Smaller confidence levels result in tighter intervals
• How should we interpret the confidence interval?
• Random sampling
• Simple random sampling
• Stratified sampling
• Cluster sampling
• What is bootstrapping?
• Estimating median life expectancy

### Statistical Inference

• What is statistical inference?
• Why must we use samples?
• Why do we need to conduct hypothesis tests?
• What is hypothesis testing?
• Null hypothesis
• Alternative hypothesis
• Rejecting the null hypothesis
• One- vs Two-tailed hypothesis tests
• Choosing between one- and two-tailed tests
• What are p-values?
• Significance level (?)
• Types of errors
• Confidence levels vs significance levels
• Performing hypothesis tests
• p-value controversy
• When to use a t-test
• t-value
• t-distribution
• t-distributions
• Are slot machine payouts within tolerance?
• Preform a t-test on RTP data using R
• Two-sample t-test
• When to use a z-test
• Conducting hypothesis tests using z-scores
• When to use a 2 test
• Education and Brexit vote
• Brexit vote breakdown
• 2 value
• 2 distributions
• Are education and Brexit vote related?
• When to use a F-test
• Conducting hypothesis tests using F-values
• F-distributions
• Height distribution by sex
• Does height variation differ by sex?
• When to use analysis of variance (ANOVA)
• Determining the F-value
• Are all diets the same?
• All diets are apparently not the same
• Normality hypothesis tests
• Statistically significant treatments?
• What is statistical power?
• Calculating statistical power
• Statistical power curve
• Improving statistical power of hypothesis tests

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